Eucalyptus Teak Sagwan Poplar Plantation Farming Plants for agriculture investment .
Eucalyptus – Tree Plantation Timber
Fast growing eucalyptus tree wood, poles, wood, timber, biomass, essential oil Ecellent Asia, Australia, Europe and the United States trees planted in plantations and are a source of nectar for bees. It originated in Australia, both for profit and for subsistence and industrial wood supply eucalyptus trees grown by smallholders large conglomerates. Eucalyptus essential oil yield of valuable species, some also are an excellent source of nectar for bees. An estimated 50 million hectares of eucalyptus have been planted around the world.
Eucalyptus trees regrowth of many species because of its ability to manage high growth, soil and climate, seed availability and ease of management for the wide adaptability, and other favourable characteristics,. For many areas of the world were important timber supply crisis looming, eucalyptus often vertical wood products increased steadily with an average of 6-10 feet than any other species normally used can produce year. Eucalyptus in tropical regions of the world, the real rate of return of over 15% can produce. It soon could get investment returns compared to other tree species, which is good news for producers.
The advantage of the rapidly growing eucalyptus trees
The result of fast growing eucalyptus trees. Overall, revenues and profits of forestry investments rely on the sustainable development of biomass. Obviously – – amount to obtain a fair return next quality is important. For example, the raw material in the international market in terms of quality wood / wood / biomass are different prices. Such a growth rate teak, oak trees more than other timber species such as Robinie predictable and stable in the fast-growing eucalyptus trees are ideal for managed plots. Trees are cut and are ready to be sold after the addition, the natural growth rate in ideal weather and a few years later is very high.
Eucalyptus tree plantation timber, oil and biomass are valuable. Eucalyptus plantation which began in the 1980s in Australia, eucalyptus oil industry service. Because of its success, Indonesia, China and other countries such as the United States is surprisingly growing eucalyptus has launched programs.
Start a eucalyptus plantation
A high density planting of eucalyptus plantation (about 1,000 trees per acre) is required. High density planting fast growth and natural pruning branch terminal forces in the country better. Eucalyptus seedlings that are 10 feet or more in height when planting eucalyptus seedlings began with 12-inch Assuming, of every other tree in the year of 5 or 6 in a first thinning should start. A second and final thinning should be preformed in the year 15.
Eucalyptus plantations of oil tree plantations to isolate some planting forests are developed, comprehensive requirement. Offers about 20 feet between tree seedlings for planting should be enough. That is why about 200 trees per acre.
Eucalyptus biomass as a plantation planting eucalyptus require the same pattern of high density planting. During the life of the plantation is not required, to maximize the amount of biomass. Regenates eucalyptus stump, harvesting and crop up again in the eight-year cycle is 10 years because of cuts must be grown.
Eucalyptus trees grow new cut trunk. Buds under the bark of a good supply of good feedback that depends on tree stump.
$ 25 and $ 100 per thousand and preferably be cloned seedling costs between hybrids. A sawmill facility located near eucalyptus plantations, oil processors or biomass will reduce transportation costs and increase profits. Reduce the cost of long-term capital leases land. A purchase agreement will help to raise capital.
Fertilization, the cost of land, irrigation, plant, site preparation, weed suppression and average between $ 1,000 and $ 3,000 per hectare, the total capital expenditure, including labor. Total revenues before expenses of market conditions, the quality of the wood, the wood and the use of space based on the average per hectare is between $ 5000 and $ 9000.
Eucalyptus trees Facts
Eucalyptus is the world’s most widely planted hardwood species
Eucalyptus for its excellence in excessive paper and energy production worldwide is appreciated
Eucalyptus grows faster than other hardwood species
Eucalyptus to reduce pressure on environmentally sensitive areas, grow upland landscape
Eucalyptus grows commercially pine similar entries
Eucalyptus fiber and low rocker producing raw materials for energy
Eucalyptus trees worldwide commercial tree plantations in the future due to the growing interest in these fast growing trees is bright. Eucalyptus Eucalyptus trees it is an ideal option, which is also conducive to many tropical and subtropical climates. Eucalyptus wood, pulp and essential oils have a wide range of uses.
In the United States, the federal government’s carbon sequestration potential of biomass production and eucalyptus trees Department of Energy and the production of alternative energy in the country’s interests and the cycling World Match is designated “carbon.” Eucalyptus is the United States’ entire bioenergy strategy The center is also in – United States US oil consumption with biofuels target for the replacement of 30 percent of “30 ? 30” is working toward as published by the Department of Agriculture and the US Department of “Billion Tons The report, “the 1.37 billion tons of dry biomass necessary requirement, accounting for an estimated 377 million tons of dry biomass short rotation woody crops, with the 2030, the US Energy in April 2005.
Eucalyptus forest species, including native trees, offers many advantages in comparison with. Thanks to the favorable climate of the Brazilian eucalyptus pulp can be harvested in just seven years – it reaches 35 meters high. Productivity planted conifers and native trees that most of the country’s double, and eucalyptus grown as a key competitive factor for Brazil. Due to the high productivity, the amount of land required to eucalyptus plantations is very low.
The most economically important Iberian species Eucalyptus (approx. 12 million hectares), has introduced more than 200 years ago in Europe. The industrial, agricultural and social sectors to provide the level of benefits (especially in Portugal and Spain) pasta has become the main supply of raw materials from various industries.
During the last thirty years, eucalyptus plantations in the tropics and subtropics has undergone significant development. Fast, excellent fiber growth, and relatively high wood density: promising biotech success more recently reflected by vegetative propagation and breeding natural properties have been added to the tree. The ligniculture or pulpwood species of trees as one of the best supported in the Nilgiris. The pattern of plantation uniformity and improve the quality of the wood, with high productivity and low cycle, agriculture, to reduce the risk of disease in particular is continuing to invest in research and development of private investment in the pulp industry Drew and ecological farming. Eucalyptus plantation development investments especially in Australia Pulp and Paper companies have joined the multinational financial groups has begun to draw.
Deforestation, especially in Asia and the Pacific has become severe. As a result, the rate of forest plantation establishment has increased significantly over the past decade and many species of eucalyptus plantation programs has been one of the most important components .
Teak (Sagwan) :
Teak (Sagwan), holds summer or winter, you will not feel uncomfortable. Metal and plastic outdoor furniture even left in the sun to warm temperate timber, while the water is still warm and comfortable to touch. Metal or plastic outdoor furniture will absorb too cold. Maybe a cold night, but if it is still comfortable wooden patio furniture. Increase their comfort level timber in any court, or any of the solarium or in the garden.
Tick ??tissue culture (Sagwan)
Teak (Sagwan) tissue culture is strong in any weather. Check the content of natural oils and resist rot, which have a compact. With an international boycott of harvesting natural teak plantations growing alternative supplies. Our teak wood has grown from tissue culture and from 7 to 9-year cycle, or as needed can be reduced in intensive cattle are grown using the method used to select the seed potatoes. Fabric by the increasing market demands rapid cycles of between 7-9 years, 20-25 years, are not allowed. This is a proven method which in turn gives a higher yield and quality consistently deliver high quality wood. A good and safe investment, and only six months, 7-9 years, a great return on teak trees already high about 10 feet. Year 2, they are enough to get a good broad canopy, and, therefore, from 7 to 9 years begin to reach maturity, such as young trees established strong. High carbon sequestration: In line with the rapid growth, teak is one of the fastest rates of carbon. Carbon from the atmosphere and stored in a timber at a very high level. The world economy is moving to a carbon index as the identity of the future gas market could provide additional value, depending on the project.
It is true that teak (Tectona Grandis)
It is true that teak (Tectona Grandis), Southeast Asia (India, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, North and South Vietnam, East India), in the montane forest, dry naturally grown trees and deciduous. Tectona Grandis does not grow in the rainforest, but more and only wood harvested from natural forests in the fields, and can confirm that this is not true is that the source must be purchased.
? Sagwan : Core or sapwood. If it is done with sound Tectona Grandis teak furniture. Air terrace turns a rich brown color. It usually directly and visibly oily. excellent dimensional stability and natural durability is very high then. In contact with metals
? Teak (Sagwan) tissue culture do not cause rust or corrosion.
? Teak (Sagwan) tissue culture can be maintained throughout the whole year. If you practice varnish finish teak furniture (recommended), or leave it to weather naturally, home furnishings during the winter does not require the use of disk space. No lugging furniture in and out. Just wash with soap and water in the spring and thick varnish worn or damaged, it may in any area. “Done”, known as the sand with fine sandpaper, remove all dust, thick varnish used.
Teak Tree Plantation?
142 kg of carbon dioxide annually, took a single teak core. Another advantage of planting teak economic growth in the principal amount of the substance. Points can be sold teak wood supply cut. In essence, we maintain ecological balance sentiasa cycle of planting and cutting products must maintain. He is a better value than other major commercial menjimatkan as teak, recognized as king. As well as the King of our lives at Rosewood generation that follows its own economic development, we encourage the cultivation of teak in its original natural goodness do.
Why invest in teak and eucalyptus plants:
Retrun teak and eucalyptus plantations in large commercial basis.
Welcome to the 100 st Investment
By planting teak approximatily you get 10 to 12 feet from the school of solid teak. Purata tick meaning Rs. Indian market in 2500 at the foot of solid wood. Thus, you get 12×2500 = RM 30,000 first because the main identity. You are planting 500 acres of bracket you get = 15000000 500×30000.
Eucalyptus clones on the subject by platinting get about 300 to 400 kg. Almost need at least 1200-1400 clone Seekar. We you a rough estimate of 300 kg 1400 x 300 = 420000 kg, ie each of the principal will result seekar 4 years .On what seekar 1800 420 plants ready to provide tan matrix permeability of Rs 6000-7000 seekar current market levels .
Teak Plants Plantation
Overview of problems in teak plantations
Teak plantation trees widely in the healthy development of high quality timber production and in the tropics has been established to form the stem. Many factors site, seed supply and seed quality, management, and other biological factors, such as insects, including teak planting programs affect performance. The site of plantations is an important factor in influencing the growth and development. Development and yield of teak plantations and within the outside of the area shown, have different properties to the site. Correct site selection, development and yield can be improved by over 100%. Teak revised composition suitable locations. Especially in countries where the scope and quality of foreign teak plantation planting seed factor limiting food ,. In the table the need for different forms of seed plantations and seed sources (demolition) and the development of improved seeds and plants shown to affect quality. Seed and clonal analysis of short-term program to improve the output of the store is available. Weeding, thinning and pest and fire protection and to improve the quality of growth seen Silvicultural teak plantation management practices.
Teak (Tectona Grandis) is one of the world’s most famous forests. The attraction termites, wood against fungi and environment etc. quality in colour and texture, strength, lightness with strength, ease of spices without splitting and cracking, and ease of handling threads, including the species of course, Indian Burmese Botanical Area is resident in India, Myanmar, Thailand and Laos ; The chronic administration in Indonesia. Because of the high quality woods, market demand, domestication and breeding freely, teak plantation widely 1850 (India plantations) in the tropics has been established. In Asia, such as Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and China, as in many countries overseas tick up; In West Africa, Ghana, Nigeria, Ivory Coast, Senegal, Togo and Benin; Sudan and Tanzania in East Africa; Trinidad, Puerto Rico and Panama in Central America; Brazil and Ecuador in South America (India Plantation). Global teak plantation area in 1990, including 75% of high-quality tropical hardwood plantations, which is about 1.6 million hectares, is recorded. The main objective with good growth is the production of high quality timber trees.
Teak in many countries was assessed as priority species, though the country still in the planting of the program is limited to small or medium scale, it is part of the tropical teak plantations in 1990 to 5% fell from 11% in 1980, so has been especially teak is grown as an alien species, where. There are many factors that limit performance teak plantation. Three main factors sites, planting and forestry management, quality and quantity of content quality.
The quality of sites
Site effects – growth plantations
The main purpose of plantation teak in a tree with good or acceptable increase is producing high quality trees. To achieve these goals, the landing site must be suitable for the growth and development of teak. Within and outside the natural range of teak plantations in the tropics, have been established. The 500 respectively 3,500 mm and 2 ? -48 ? C (minimum and maximum range), the rainfall and temperature with a variety of subtropical equatorial type, which covers a wide range of weather conditions Gaya. The fertile alluvial soil too acidic to desertification. Development and trees such as the size of the stem major changes in other characters, trees and flowering habit quality mode usually results in tree plantation. Conditions in a wide range of plantation teak plantations ranging from annual growth in the volume of 2 m3 / ha / year> 30-40 years less than 8m3 / ha / year should not have recommended teak plantation at half speed 15 m3 / ha / year business landing. Teak for planting site carefully species (through, for example, should be selected. Landing area, you create the index through the lines on the development of quality sites to place the effect would show plantings. Different qualities grown The growth is the difference in diameter teak plantation, field, and after selecting sites beyond the natural range of teak, it is carried out. In the case of Indonesia, plantation development is possible to add more than 116%.
Good and bad qualities of the site in different countries raised height teak plantation
It is well known, such as the banks or the wet teak wood moist environment between the lumberjacks LIC trees with a dried paint that is usually darker than the known. Teak colour, seems to depend on the site. Trees, golden brown teak wood is one of the most attractive features, to change the colour and texture of the wood has been widely studied. 20-year study in Thailand wood discolouration and texture pattern analysis test pattern analysis clearly showed teak colour and texture strongly controlled seats. The test timber tree clones from different places with different colours (i.e, dark brown, golden brown, light brown in colour and texture of the wood, it is a stone, wood and wood to create similar tree waxy texture (colour and texture when planted in the same place (<0.5 hectares of land). Similarly, Thailand’s intentional destruction of 14 years of the test results do not clearly or seed origin is little significant effect have shown that there are (ticks carry within and outside the region installed) or the source colour wood (i.e golden brown) and tree density. These tests India, Thailand, Indonesia, Laos and African races consist of the original. Basically, your wood is not a noticeable impact on the colour such as a golden brown. The wood fraction of a tree with a golden brown natural ticking artist replaced on site reduced carrier that is the reason for this change is not yet known. 74% to 63%, that is not, but probably because the chemical composition of the soil and climate in the two landing sites vary.
LIC defined site
The landing site development, that has a big impact on the development and quality teak plantation is shown. By choosing the right place for plantation productivity plantation program can improve dramatically. Discontinuous and patchy distribution of teak in its natural range type that should be noted. Size, quality, density and feature teak wood, vary from one location to another. Development and distribution of this species and there are many factors that govern nature. The main factor the amount and distribution of rainfall and soil moisture and light covers.
Rain and humidity
Teak with very moist, (500 mm / year) of extremely dry weather grows naturally in a wide range (5,000 mm / year). Very dry, the tree is usually stunted and shrubby. Very wet conditions, a large tree and fluted and generally behave like semi-evergreen species, color, texture and density of the woods in terms of poor quality. The best development of high quality trees, (as stated in the annual rainfall) as moisture conditions for the production of 1200 and 2500 mm with a pronounced dry season between 3-5 months to be done. The total rainfall of 50 mm per month during the dry season shows.
Teak. Such as basalt, limestone, shells, shell, sand (and some volcanic rocks derived from deep, well-drained alluvial soils, but grows best Conversely, species perform very poorly in terms of growth and dry sandy soil, as the foundation stem soil (clay or hard pan soil below the water table), soil, and after closing or waterlogged soil or peat by a laterite acidic (pH <6.0) is.
Crossed fertile soil is relatively high calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), nitrogen (N) and organic matter (OM) content. Some studies growth and development for the label needs a relatively large amount of calcium, and calcium-rich rocks teak that has been designated as the shows. The amount of calcium in the soil of the site as a quality indicator signal is used. That is, the wood in the soil is high in proportion to other related species, teak with high calcium content.
Soil pH range of distribution of species and the stand that is another factor. Although widely teak (5.0 to 8.0) in the forests of the range of soil pH, between 6.5 to 7.5 pH for better growth and the quality of the optimal range.
Teak is classified as a pioneer species. The growth and development requires a high intensity light. The study clearly impact on the growth and development of teak seedlings showed intensity; Dry matter production of teak seedlings decreased significantly with decreasing intensity. In their study, 25% of the low light intensity (8 months) dry matter production of seedlings under 75% of full day light under high light intensity than the 14.6 GM crops was 0.6 grams. Between 75-90% of plant growth and development of the best light intensity.
In addition, rain and moisture, dirt and light intensity, temperature and altitude, as other factors such as the type specimen has an important role in limiting the spread and development. The Teak grows well in hot and humid conditions that are known. Growth and development follows a series of studies of the temperature range of 27-36 ? C, the maximum temperature is fairly common in tropical teak range that is detected. Teak in the winter cold and frost tolerance. In frosty conditions, badly damaged and , the species can not grow at altitudes above 700 meters due to a dying seedlings and plants.
Planting seed distribution program is one of the most important factors limiting signal. The old test or experimental plantation teak used solely as an exotic species and seed is grown especially true in the countries. Annual seed requirements, including the number and quality seed supply problems is considered.
The need for seed
It is well known that poor germination teak and rare because of the behaviour of the rest. 30-50% over a period of 50 days from germination, seedlings were smaller than untreated children. This behaviour nursery production plants in a very low percentage of germination causes. According to our estimates, the proportion of teak saplings in nurseries where only 5% of the seed treatment before sowing, or 100. This number is usually sown crop year (4-5000000 seedlings per year) is obtained in the operation of older children five received planning table plant, is not practical for a large number of seeds. Seed germination and growth of the competition’s bad behaviour, nursery bedding plants do not transplant lower proportion of plants in the production of children is the main reason. The amount of seed for beating 25%, including a 4 hectare plantation (8 kg to 4 meters is needed. Different seed requirements for the rating is based on the fact the program in planting teak. 1 kg seeds in Thailand in 1800, 1 liter of 450 percent of the seeds and plants is 5%.
Require 8 to 34 kg / ha of plantations varies. Similar estimates of seed requirements from India, set out from i.e 2.5 to 43 kg / ha. Such a large amount of seed per hectare plantation necessary (techniques, methods and MD thinning and grafting seedling container, seeding density, seeding) improved seed germination (i.e seed treatment before sowing) and methods for children reduced by can go.
The success of planting programs on the quality of the site, but also the genetic quality of planting material depends not only on. Plantation growth and yield can be significantly improved by the choice of the place, the quality of the stem strongly controlled by genetic makeup. International test results from teak drift can be improved or developed basic seed, seed, root or source of growth through proper choice of stalk quality, early flowering habit and showed the impact on health of a source of productivity and quality stem (funding source) and high 23% and 17% respectively. In many cases, local demolition is as or worse than the alien destruction. Improve the development is important, (seed, seed orchards and fields of trees i.e) use of improved seeds, planting trees and other characters on the quality stem.
Poplar plantation scheme:
Poplar wood and bark (PB for farmers), packaging plywood, mattshstikx, boards, boxes, bags and pencil game for making the most preferred raw material. Under this scheme, the loan amount of Rs Any Agricultural Development Bank of Punjab. 116 000, in eight equal annual installments, in 5000 a hectare poplar planting.
The information below is provided under the loan:
1. Applications must be submitted to the bank by the Forest Department.
2. At least 150 poplar trees should be planned is waiting for the loan.
3. The borrower must have an adequate system to water the plants.
4. The State Department at discounted prices 12-15 feet tall poplar forest provides plants. For the purchase of plants, farmer / planter loan granted by the bank to the Department click directly.
The loan must be paid back within one year of taking the interest payments under the deferred payment will be treated as the first eight years after completing the ninth year must return the full amount of the loan.
Important information about poplar plants:
1. poplar can be planned only in the months of January and February
2. poplar bar with layers of small stones and land, termite-ridden country, can not be employed in the dry sand and ground.
3. When the trees are employed in the city, it should be 5 x 4 meters. Planned around the border but, when the paths of Central share hedges or lines distance varies in each and every case.
4. The State Forest Department plantation owners without cost provides the necessary technical information.
5. A mature tree, about 90 centimeters in diameter at Rs 550 / can be sold to -.
6. planned poplar country where / region, rice, except for the production of all types of production may be used.